Python

Python cheat sheet - lists, dict, iteration, string, casting, comprehensions, regex, reading, writing & more

A cheatsheet by @rstacruz|Refreshed 5 months ago.Refresh|View source on Github

Lists

Lists

list = []
list[i:j]  # returns list subset
list[-1]   # returns last element
list[:-1]  # returns all but the last element

list[i] = val
list[i:j] = otherlist  # replace ith to jth-1 elements with otherlist
del list[i:j]

list.append(item)
list.extend(another_list)
list.insert(index, item)
list.pop()        # returns and removes last element from the list
list.pop(i)       # returns and removes i-th element from the list
list.remove(i)    # removes the first item from the list whose value is i
list1 + list2     # combine two list    
set(list)         # remove duplicate elements from a list

list.reverse()    # reverses the elements of the list in-place
list.count(item)
sum(list)

zip(list1, list2)  # returns list of tuples with n-th element of both list1 and list2
list.sort()        # sorts in-place, returns None
sorted(list)       # returns sorted copy of list
",".join(list)     # returns a string with list elements seperated by comma

Dict

Dict

dict.keys()
dict.values()
"key" in dict    # let's say this returns False, then...
dict["key"]      # ...this raises KeyError
dict.get("key")  # ...this returns None
dict.setdefault("key", 1)

Iteration

Iteration

for item in ["a", "b", "c"]:
for i in range(4):        # 0 to 3
for i in range(4, 8):     # 4 to 7
for i in range(1, 9, 2):  # 1, 3, 5, 7
for key, val in dict.items():
for index, item in enumerate(list):

String

String

str[0:4]
len(str)

string.replace("-", " ")
",".join(list)
"hi {0}".format('j')
f"hi {name}" # same as "hi {}".format('name')
str.find(",")
str.index(",")   # same, but raises IndexError
str.count(",")
str.split(",")

str.lower()
str.upper()
str.title()

str.lstrip()
str.rstrip()
str.strip()

str.islower()

/* escape characters */
>>> 'doesn\'t'  # use \' to escape the single quote...
    "doesn't"
>>> "doesn't"  # ...or use double quotes instead
    "doesn't"
>>> '"Yes," they said.'
    '"Yes," they said.'
>>> "\"Yes,\" they said."
    '"Yes," they said.'
>>> '"Isn\'t," they said.'
    '"Isn\'t," they said.'

Casting

Casting

int(str)
float(str)
str(int)
str(float)
'string'.encode()

Comprehensions

Comprehensions

[fn(i) for i in list]            # .map
map(fn, list)                    # .map, returns iterator

filter(fn, list)                 # .filter, returns iterator
[fn(i) for i in list if i > 0]   # .filter.map

Regex

Regex

import re

re.match(r'^[aeiou]', str)
re.sub(r'^[aeiou]', '?', str)
re.sub(r'(xyz)', r'\1', str)

expr = re.compile(r'^...$')
expr.match(...)
expr.sub(...)

Reading

Reading

file = open("hello.txt", "r") # open in read mode 'r'
file.close() 
print(file.read())  # read the entire file and set the cursor at the end of file
print file.readline() # Reading one line
file.seek(0, 0) # place the cursor at the beggining of the file

Writing (overwrite)

Writing (overwrite)

file = open("hello.txt", "w") # open in write mode 'w'
file.write("Hello World") 

text_lines = ["First line", "Second line", "Last line"] 
file.writelines(text_lines)

file.close()

Writing (append)

Writing (append)

file = open("Hello.txt", "a") # open in append mode
file.write("Hello World again")  
file.close()

Context manager

Context manager

with open("welcome.txt", "r") as file:
    # 'file' refers directly to "welcome.txt"
   data = file.read()

# It closes the file automatically at the end of scope, no need for `file.close()`.