A cheatsheet by @ankane|Refreshed about 1 year ago.Refresh|View source on Github

:rocket: Best practices for scaling Rails

Do not scale prematurely. Many of these add complexity. Also, do not do all of them. Evaluate each of them independently for your application.

Keep the majestic monolith as long as possible. Spend a good amount of time fixing pain (app boot times and test times are common sources). Microservices or multiple self-contained systems add a huge amount of complexity.

Assign different teams as owners for different parts of the code for things like triaging errors. Do not discourge other teams from working in that part of the code. Ownership can help with this.

Max out your existing technologies before introducing new ones. Even if your current technology isn’t the perfect fit for the job, there’s a huge cost associated with learning and operating something new.

The database is often the primary bottleneck when scaling.

  • See which queries take the most total time. If you use PostgreSQL, PgHero can help. Marginalia can help identify their origin.
  • Scale reads out by fixing n+1 queries, caching frequent queries, and using read replicas. Use Distribute Reads for replicas.
  • Scale writes with separate databases. Use Multiverse for seperate databases.
  • Scale space with separate database or partitioning. For Postgres, pgslice can help with partitioning.
  • Scale connections with a connection pooler. For Postgres, use PgBouncer.

If you use Sidekiq and Redis CPU gets too high, try reducing the number of queues each type of worker is dedicated to. The number of Redis calls required to check queues is proportional to the number of queues a worker has to process.